Games of the IX Olympiad
17 May - 12 August 1928
Peace and Harmony
The Games of the IX Olympiad were held in an atmosphere of peace and harmony that preceded twenty years of economic uncertainty and war. They were a success and contributed to the ever-increasing attraction of the Olympic Games.
Amateurs vs Professionals
By 1928 the IOC had clarified the definition of an amateur who
- Must not be or knowingly have become a professional in the sport for which he is entered or in any other sport
- Must not have received re-imbursement or compensation for loss of salary.
- Must sign a declaration that, on his honour, he is an amateur according to the Olympic rules of amateurism.
For equestrian sport, an amateur was:
- Every professional officer actively serving.
- Anyone riding solely for the sport and recognized by a national body as a gentleman.
On the other hand, was considered a professional
- Anyone who deals, hires, rides, trains or works with horses for money or lets theses work for them for money.
- Owners, employees, riders, trainers, grooms of riding schools and circuses.
Between Amsterdam and Hilversum
With the exception of the two Jumping competitions, which were held in the Amsterdam Olympic Stadium, all competitions took place in or around Hilversum, lying some 30 km south-east of Amsterdam. All the horses were stabled there and this meant elaborate transportation arrangements to Amsterdam.
In Hilversum during the four competition days, there were a total of 4,763 individual paying spectators. In addition there were 666 with four-day tickets. Assuming they attended all four days, this brings the total attendance to 7,427.
In the Olympic Stadium in Amsterdam there were 12,304 and 19,768 paying spectators on the two Jumping days (the second of which included the closing ceremony).
The income from the ticket sales in Hilversum was 11,140 florins and in Amsterdam 141,041 florins for an impressive total of over 150,000 florins, out of a total games ticket income of 1,435,000 florins.
Three Rider Rule
The major change was the FEI’s decision to reduce the numbers of starters in each discipline form four to three. The FEI argued that the reduction would reduce the burden of participation for the National Federations. This three-rider rule remained in effect until the sixties.
President and Technical Delegate
In charge of the equestrian events was Col. Maris, the President of the Dutch Equestrian Federation and FEI President since 1927. Technical Delegate was Col. D.J. Couvée. It is not known whether he also designed the courses. Olympic Course Designers are only known since 1932.
Games Facts & Figures
- 46 nations
- 2,883 athletes (277 women; 2,606 men)
- 14 sports
- For the first time, the Olympic flame was lit at the top of a tower placed inside the stadium and remained lit throughout the Games.
- At the Opening Ceremony, the team from Greece led the Parade of Nations and the host Dutch team marched in last. Greece first, hosts last would become a permanent part of the Olympic protocol.